Probiotics influence human health by modifying the compositions and activity of intestinal microbiota. Lactic and bifidobacteria are the major probiotic organisms, which have their own importance as a probiotics. Bifidobacteria are naturally found in the GI tract of humans and other animals. These bacteria are generally gram positive, irregular rod like with branching or Y shaped and are categorized as pleomorphic based on their irregular shape. Bifidobacteria have been extensively studied for their efficacy to prevent some of GI infections, colonic adenoma, cancer and also slowing the aging process.

Signaling through protein kinases are evolutionarily conserved. Eukaryotic like serine threonine kinase (eSTK) is characteristic feature of many gram positive bacteria with high GC content. They are most abundant in actinobacteria, the family to which bifidobacteria belongs. eSTK are involved in the vital processes such as cell division, DNA replication and additionally they interact with epithelial cells of human intestine, induces the immune response and modulate the antibiotic resistance.