Probiotics influence human health by modifying the compositions and activity of intestinal microbiota. Lactic and bifidobacteria
are the major probiotic organisms, which have their own importance as a probiotics. Bifidobacteria are naturally found in the GI
tract of humans and other animals. These bacteria are generally gram positive, irregular rod like with branching or Y shaped and
are categorized as pleomorphic based on their irregular shape. Bifidobacteria have been extensively studied for their efficacy to
prevent some of GI infections, colonic adenoma, cancer and also slowing the aging process.
Signaling through protein kinases are evolutionarily conserved. Eukaryotic like serine threonine kinase (eSTK) is characteristic
feature of many gram positive bacteria with high GC content. They are most abundant in actinobacteria, the family to which
bifidobacteria belongs. eSTK are involved in the vital processes such as cell division, DNA replication and additionally they
interact with epithelial cells of human intestine, induces the immune response and modulate the antibiotic resistance.